Petroleum and its products enter the marine environment in the process of extraction, refining, storage, transportation and use, often causing serious pollution. The way that oil products enter the sea includes: oily wastewater from refineries is injected into the ocean through rivers or directly; the leakage and blowout of submarine oil fields in the process of mining make oil enter the ocean water; the low molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in the atmosphere settle into the ocean water; Natural drainage. Marine oil pollution is a worldwide serious marine pollution. Its prevention and treatment must rely on global cooperation to be more effective.
Pollution caused by petroleum and its products entering the marine environment during extraction, refining, storage, transportation and use. The discharge of various oily wastewater, ballast water and tank washing water of marine ships, oil tanker wrecks, leakage of oil pipelines and offshore oil exploration, etc., are all important ways of marine oil pollution. It is estimated that the world's oil entering the sea through various means is about 6 million tons per year.
Immediately after oil enters the sea, a series of changes occur, including diffusion, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, photochemical oxidation, microbial degradation, sedimentation, and formation of asphalt balls. Oil pollution can damage seaside landscapes and baths.
At the same time, after the oil pollutants enter the marine environment, it will also cause many other hazards, mainly in the following aspects:
1. Effects on human health: The hazards of fuel oil in petroleum products to human health include anesthesia and asphyxia, chemical pneumonia, dermatitis, etc.
2. Impact on aquatic organisms: The entry of petroleum pollutants into the marine environment will have a huge impact on the growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms and the entire ecosystem.
3. Impact on fishery: Oil pollution can inhibit photosynthesis, reduce the content of O2 in seawater, destroy the normal physiological functions of organisms, and gradually decline fishery resources.
4. Impact on tourism: Affected by ocean currents and waves, oil in the ocean can easily accumulate on the shore, polluting the beach and destroying tourism resources.
5. Impact on the environment: The oil film formed by oil on the sea surface can hinder the gas exchange between the atmosphere and sea water, and affect the absorption, transmission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation on the sea surface.
Therefore, when we exploit submarine oil, we must use advanced equipment to detect submarine oil, such as: Drilling Fluids Tester, Oil Well Cement Tester and other modern tools to detect, and then determine the next action plan, so as to be more perfect To prevent the occurrence of unnecessary oil spills when oil is extracted from the seabed.